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Louis and nationwide has been the explicit intents of federal, state, and local governments to create racially segregated metropolises. Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Race and Hispanic Origin of Householder– Families by Median and Mean Income: 1947 to 2009” (online data table).

Many of these explicitly segregationist governmental actions ended in the late 20 century but continue to determine today’s racial segregation patterns. Louis these governmental policies included zoning rules that classified white neighborhoods as residential and black neighborhoods as commercial or industrial; segregated public housing projects that replaced integrated low-income areas; federal subsidies for suburban development conditioned on African American exclusion; federal and local requirements for, and enforcement of, property deeds and neighborhood agreements that prohibited resale of white-owned property to, or occupancy by, African Americans; tax favoritism for private institutions that practiced segregation; municipal boundary lines designed to separate black neighborhoods from white ones and to deny necessary services to the former; real estate, insurance, and banking regulators who tolerated and sometimes required racial segregation; and urban renewal plans whose purpose was to shift black populations from central cities like St. Governmental actions in support of a segregated labor market supplemented these racial housing policies and prevented most African Americans from acquiring the economic strength to move to middle-class communities, even if they had been permitted to do so.

Within that area, whites are now a solid majority in some neighborhoods for the first time in decades.4 The following pages tell the story of how St. Louis over the last century was duplicated in almost every metropolis nationwide.

Meanwhile, suburbs beyond the first ring to the south and west of St. The pastor then gathered the owner and his neighbors for a prayer meeting, after which the owner told the agent he was no longer opposed to a black buyer. Louis ghetto and working as an assistant principal of a school in Wellston, an all-black St. Louis suburb.1 His wife, Geraldine, was a teacher in a Missouri state special education school. “The Structures of Urban Poverty: The Reorganization of Space and Work in Three Periods of American History.” In Michael B. No doubt, private prejudice and suburbanites’ desire for homogenous affluent environments contributed to segregation in St. But these explanations are too partial, and too conveniently excuse public policy from responsibility. A more powerful cause of metropolitan segregation in St. Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. This arrangement persisted until 1975 – several years after the Williams family moved into their white Ferguson neighborhood – when federal courts ordered Berkeley, Ferguson, and other white towns to integrate their schools into a common district with Kinloch.3 Other African Americans followed the Williams family by purchasing homes in Ferguson, but the African American community grew slowly. Louis Housing Authority gave relocation assistance to displaced families. Part I: Historic Contexts, 8 – The African-American Experience.” The City of St.